Caribbean Style Rice & Beans

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Ingredients:

  • Long Grain Rice – 2 cups; thoroughly rinsed until water runs clear
  • Extra Virgin Olive Oil – 2 tbs
  • Red Onion – 1/2 medium; diced
  • Garlic Cloves – 4-5; minced
  • Mushroom Caps – 4 small; sliced
  • Bell Pepper – 1/2; diced
  • Fresh Bay Leaves x 2
  • Fresh Thyme – 1 tbs
  • Vegetable broth bouillon cube x1
  • Coconut Milk – 19oz can
  • Water – 3 cups
  • Red Kidney Beans – 190z can; drained & thoroughly rinsed
  • Creole Seasoning – 4+ tbs
  • Salt & Pepper – a few dashes

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Instructions:

Heat a large sauté pan or skillet with on medium/ low heat. Wait a of couple minutes for the pan to heat up, then add the 2 tablespoons of extra virgin olive oil. After the oil has time to heat, toss in the red onion and minced garlic. Shortly after, include the bell pepper, mushrooms, and fresh thyme. Stir it all around and add a dash of salt and black pepper.

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Now its time to add the long grain rice that you have washed extremely thoroughly. Even it all out then pour 3 cups of water into the pan. The coconut milk is then added along with the vegetable broth bouillon cube, 4+ tablespoons of creole seasoning (I love this seasoning so I don’t hold back), and the rinsed red kidney beans. Finally, add the 2 fresh bay leaves and bring it to a simmer.

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Cover and reduce heat, stiring freuquently to prevent burning, adding water if necessary. It takes about 20-25 minutes for the rice to cook and water to evaporate, at which point you’ll be left with a creamy rice thats not only delicious and nutritious, but also free of animal products. Do not forget to remove the bay leaves prior to serving.

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Creole Seasoning Blend: 

  • 2 tbs Onion Powder
  • 2 tbs Garlic Powder
  • 2 tbs Dried Basil
  • 2 tbs Dried Oregano
  • 1 tbs Dried Thyme
  • 1 tbs Black Pepper
  • 1 tbs White Pepper
  • 1 tbs Cayenne Pepper
  • 5 tbs Paprika
  • 3 tbs Salt

creole seasoning

In a small bowl, combine all of the above ingredients. Store in an air tight container.

You may be able to find this seasoning already made up at your grocery store, likely in the international isle. I did not have such luck, but easily picked up all the herbs and spices at bulk barn.

 

 

 

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If the food doesn’t kill you; the packaging might

greasy fast food

The other day I caved and bought myself fast food. The usual guilt I feel when putting hydrogenated deep fried shit into my body started to occur about a quarter the way into eating. Only recently however has this guilt found a partner; one that equally concerns me – the packaging thats used to contain the food.

PFCs/ PFASs

“PFCs” can be an abbreviation for perfluorinated chemicals; or a subset of perfluorinated chemicals called perfluorcarbons; or it can also stand for perfluorinated compounds.
The abbreviation PFASs (per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances) is used alternatively to collectively describe PFOAs and PFOSs and other chemicals in this group (www.epa.gov, 2016).

Fluorine

If you’re familiar with the periodic table, you may recall the chemical element fluorine.
Fluorine is a dangerously reactive univalent poisonous gaseous halogen, it is pale yellow-green and is the most chemically reactive and electronegative of all the elements (lenntech.com, 1998-2017).

PFC’s are an organofluorine compound, which means it contains only carbon-fluorine bonds. They are used because of their hydrophobic (water-repellant) and lipophobic (oil/ fat resistant) properties. Their carbon-fluorine bonds makes them highly resistant to degradation (Schaider et al., 2017).

Pizza box

PFASs have been extensively used in water-, stain-, and oil-resistant consumer products, cookware, paints, waxes, fire-fighting foams, and polishes (Wu et al., 2015; Renner, 2001; Seacat et al., 2002). They have also been discovered in carpeting, carpet cleaners, upholstery, outdoor apparel, and food contact materials (FCMs) (Schaider et al., 2017; Kotthoff et al., 2015; Liu et al., 2015; Guo et al., 2009).

Certain PFASs and PFOSs and other chemicals were phased out voluntarily by major US manufacturers due to concerns of adverse health effects. However, these chemicals are still produced globally and continue to be imported to the U.S. (Schaider et al., 2017; U.S. Environmental Procession Agency., 2010/2015).

According to the Environmental Protection Agency, scientists detected PFASs in over 98% of the thousands of blood samples collected. Unfortunately for us, these chemicals are bioaccumulative and remain in our bodies for a long period of time.

crazy kid eating fast food

PFCs bind to proteins and are distributed mainly to the blood serum, kidney, and liver (Lau et al., 2007). Numerous studies have found correlations between exposures to PFASs and kidney and testicular cancer, thyroid disease, low birth weight, decreased sperm count, immunotoxicity in children, and pregnancy induced hypertension (Schaider et al., 2017; Barry et al., 2013; Fei et al., 2007; Stein et al., 2009; Joensen et al., 2009; Lopez-Espinosa et al., 2012; Grandjean et al., 2012; Vested et al., 2013). These chemicals have also been associated with high cholesterol and uric acid, as well as neurological effects, such as attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) among children (Wu et al., 2015; Hoffman et al., 2010).

PFASs and FCMs

In 2014 and 2015, 407 samples of food packaging at U.S. fast food restaurants were collected and tested for detectable fluorine (F) concentrations by Schaider et al., 2017. The samples were divided into 6 categories: food contact paper (e.g. sandwich wrappers an pastry bags), non-contact paper (e.g. outer bags), food contact paperboard (e.g. boxes for fries and pizza), paper cups (e.g. for hot or cold drinks), other beverages (e.g. milk and juice containers), and miscellaneous (e.g. lids and applesauce containers).

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Of the 407 samples, 33% had detectable total F concentrations, ranging from 16 to 800nmol of F/cm2. However, consider this – 16nmol of F/cm2 is equal to 30µg of F/dm2. This is the acceptable level of detection (LOD) according to the US guidelines. This acceptable LOD is buzz lightyears above the Danish Ministry of Environment and Foods guideline of 0.35µg of F/dm2 for total organic fluorine (Schaider et al., 2017; Ministry of Environment and Food of Denmark., 2015). With that said – they detected PFASs in 100% of the samples collected with total F concentrations below the LOD.

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The amount of PFASs that migrates from FCMs into our food is dependant on the amount, type, and chain length of PFASs used, the type of food (water -vs fat-based), the temperature, and the contact time. (Schaider et al., 2017; Begley et al., 2008; Yuan et al., 2016).

Presently, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approves more than 90 unique monomer and polymer PFAS’s for use in FCMs, including 20 PFASs to impart oil, grease, and/or water resistance.

Conclusion/ Summary

To conclude, food contact materials (FCMs) consist of perfluoronated chemicals (PFCs) -alternativey called PFASs. They’re used because they are highly resistant to degradation, as well as their water-, stain- and oil-resistant properties.

These chemicals make their way into food and there are numerous concerns of adverse health effects, including kidney cancer, and ADHD. Exposure to PFASs is especially relevent for kids since 1/3 of U.S. children consume fast food daily (Vilkraman et al., 2015).

Schaider et al., 2017 collected over 400 FCM samples from various fast food restaurants in the United States. 33% had dectedable fluorine levels above the U.S. standards of 30µg of F/dm2. However, this standard is undeniably greater than the Danish standard of .35µg of F/dm2. With that said, all of the samples tested had detectable levels of fluorine.

 

References

Barry, V.; Winquist, A.; Steenland, K. Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) exposures and incident cancers among adults living near a chemical plant. Environ. Health Perspect. 2013, 121 (11-12), 1313-1318.

Fact Sheet: 2010/2015 PFOA Stewardship Program; U.S. Environmental Protection Agency: Washington, DC (http://www.epa.gov/assessing-and-manging-chemicals-under-tsca/fact-sheet-20102015-pfoa-stewardship-program) (accessed July 9, 2016).

Fei, C.; McLaughlin, J.K.; Tarone, R. E.; Olsen, J. Perfluorinated chemicals and fetal growth: A study with the Danish National Birth Cohort. Environ. Health Perspect. 2007, 115 (11), 1677-1682.

Fluorine-F.; Lenntech, B.V, 1998-2017 (www.lenntech.com/periodic/elements/f/htm) (accessed July 4, 2017).

Guo, Z.; Liu, X.; Krebs, K. Perfluorocarboxylic acid content in 116 articles of commerce. EPA/600/R-09/033; Office of Research and Development, National Risk Management Research Laboratory, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency: Research Triangle Park, NC, 2009.

Grandjean, P.; Andersen, E. W.; Budtz-Jorgensen, E.; Nielsen, F.; Molbak, K.; Weihe, P.; Heilmann, C. Serum vaccine antibody concentrations in children exposed to perfluorinated compounds. JAMA, J. Am. Med. Assoc. 2012, 307 (4), 391-397.

Hoffman, K.; Webster, T. F.; Weinberg, J.; Vieira, V. M.; Weisskopf, M. G. Exposure to polyfluoroalkyl chemicals and attention deficit/ hyperactivity disorder in US children 12-15 years of age. Environ. Health Perspect. 2010, 118, 1762-1767.

Joensen, U. N.; Bossi, R.; Leffers, H.; Jensen, A. A.; Skakkebaek, N. E; Jorgensen, N. Do perfluoroalkyl compounds impair human semen quality? Environ. Health Perspect. 2009, 117 (6), 923-927.

Kotthoff, M.; Muller, J.; Jurling, H.; Schlummer, M.; Fiedler, D. Perfluoroalkyl and polyfluoroalkyl substances in consumer products. Environ. Sci. Pollut. Res. 2015, 22 (9), 14546-14559.

Lau, C.; Anitole, K.; Hodes, C.; Lai, D.; Pfahles-Hutchens, A.; Seed, J. Perfluoroalkyl acids: a review monitoring and toxicological findings. Toxicol. Sci. 2007, 99, 336-394.

Liu, X.; Guo, Z.; Folk, E. E.; Roache, N.F. Determination of fluorotelomer alcohols in selected consumer products and preliminary investigation of their fate in the indoor environment. Chemosphere 2015, 129, 81-86.

Lopez-Espinosa, M.-J.; Mondal, D.; Armstrong, B.; Bloom, M. S.; Fletcher, T. Thyroid function and perfluoroalkyl acids in children living near a chemical plant. Environ. Health Perspect. 2012. 120 (7). 1036-1041.

Renner, R., 2001. Growing concern over perfluorinated chemicals. Environ. Sci. Technol. 2001. 35, 154-160.

Schaider, L.A.; Balan, S.A.; Blum, A.; Andrews, D.Q.; Strynar, M.J.; Dickinson, M.E.; Lunderberg, D.M.; Lang, J.R.; Peaslee, G.F. Fluorinated Compounds in U.S. Fast Food Packaging. Environ. Sci. Technol. Lett. 2017, 105-111.

Seacat, A.M.; Thomford, P.J.; Hansen, K.J.; Olsen, G.W.; Case, M.T.; Butenhoff, J.L. Subchronic toxicity studies on perfluorooctanesulfonate potassium salt in cynomolgus monkeys. Toxicol. Sci. 2002, 68, 249-264.

Stein, C. R.; Savitz, D. A.; Dougan, M. Serum levels of perfluorooctanoic acid and perfluorooctane sulfonate and pregnancy outcome. Am. J. Epidemiol. 2009, 170 (7), 837-846.

Vested, A.; Ramlau-Hansen, C. H.; Olsen, S. F.; Bonde, J. P.; Kristensen, S. L.; Halldorsson, T. I.; Becher, G.; Haug, L. S.; Earnst, E. H.; Toft, G. Associations of in utero exposure to perfluorinated alkyl acids with human semen quality and reproductive hormones in adult men. Environ. Health Perspect. 2013, 121 (4), 453-458.

What are PFCs and how do they relate to per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs)?; U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 2016 (https://www.epa.gov/pfas/what-are-pfcs-and-how-do-they-relate-and-polyfluoroalkyl-substances-pfass) (accessed July 2, 2017).

Wu, X.M.; Bennett, D.H.; Calafat, A.M.; Kato, K.; Strynar, M.; Andersen, E.; Moran, R.E.; Tancredi, D.J.; Tulve, N.S.; Hertz-Picciotto, I. Serum concentrations of perfluorinated compounds (PFC) among selected populations of children and adults in California. Elsevier Environmental Research 2015, 136, 264-273.

 

APPLE CIDER VINEGAR

ACV 1

APPLE CIDER VINEGAR

ACV is a delicious addition to salad dressings, homemade pickles and marinades; but I have reason to believe its benefits well exceed that of taste. I find myself recommending ACV to friends for a variety of reasons, and I too make the up-most use of this type of vinegar.

AVC – What is it?

Apple cider vinegar is produced from cider or apple must (crushed and aged apples), which are fermented until the sugars turn into vinegar. The unfiltered cider contains the “mother of vinegar”, which is the part that contains the most benefits.

ACV is a natural bacteria fighter containing minerals and trace elements such as magnesium, phosphorus, chlorine, sodium, sulfur, potassium, calcium, copper, iron, silicon and fluorine. It is brown-yellow in colour and has been said to hold many benefits including weight loss, acne, digestion, acid reflux, cholesterol, constipation, heartburn and possibly even help fight diseases.

AVC – What I use it for:

DIGESTION

One reason I use ACV is for digestion. Simply put, it makes my stomach feel better. I mix one tablespoon in a small glass of lukewarm water and drink it prior to a meal and/or after eating.  ACV can help stimulate Hydrochloric Acid which is responsible for breaking down food. The better you breakdown food, the more your body can absorb and make what it needs from that food. In addition, if you are someone who suffers from an underactive stomach and experience bloating, cramps, gas, belching or get the feeling of being “over full” after a meal, try ACV. Mind you, if you experience those symptoms after eating an unhealthy meal, I strongly recommend you clean up your diet first.

FAT BURNING

Another reason I choose to swig back this bitter substance is to help my body burn fat. Do I think this will help someone who is clinically obese reduce body fat? Yes, but only if it’s part of a bigger picture; coupled with exercise and healthy eating. Myself, I eat well and for my goals. Without any particular ACV 4change to my diet I noticed an improved body composition after a few weeks of drinking ACV daily. With that said, it may just be that punch in the face your metabolism needs to shake that last couple pounds. Scientifically, ACV’s acetic acid has been shown to suppress the accumulation of body fat and liver lipids. It’s also believed that its pectin may slightly reduce your body’s ability to absorb fat. If I want a real kick, I’ll add a few shakes of cayenne pepper to my water and ACV – probably better, safer, cheaper and more effective than those terrible “fat burner” pills.

ACV – What I recommend it for

Apple cider vinegar is an amazing natural substance that has said to been used to effectively treat and heal many common illnesses/ailments. Luckily for me, I don’t suffer from most if any of these illnesses, so I can’t guarantee its effectiveness. However, I have had clients and friends with some common issues and I quickly recommend ACV to relieve the following:

ACID REFLUX

An older woman whom I’ve been training for the past couple of years pops Tums like it’s her job. I keep telling her to stop the Tums and start drinking ACV! The acetic acid in ACV lowers stomach acidity; increasing its pH, which may help relieve conditions such as heartburn and acid reflux. Unfortunately, this client has yet to take my advice and continues to eat those useless chalky tabs. So please, if you suffer from acid reflux, try this and get back to me!

PSORAISIS

Psoriasis is an extremely common skin condition that causes skin to be dry, itchy, red and flaky. I’ve had friends complain about it, so I recommend ACV. Diluting a couple tablespoons of ACV in a spray bottle full of water, and then lightly spraying the affected area(s) has been said to clear up psoriasis quickly and effectively. Why go to your doctor for some expensive, smelly cream when help is available naturally and for less than 7 bucks? One friend got back to me after trying this and said the psoriasis on his scalp was gone after a couple treatments.

ACV – Other Uses

Although there isn’t much solid, scientific proof of the following, I have no doubt that AVC can also help with:

  • Acne
  • Athlete’s Foot
  • Heart Health
  • Kidney Stones
  • Nails
  • Rosacea
  • Sunburn
  • Vaginal Irritation
  • Animal Care
  • ArthritisACV 3
  • Blood Pressure
  • Gout
  • Hair Loss
  • Sore Throat
  • Menopause
  • Acid Reflux
  • Pink Eye
  • Salad Dressings
  • Toner
  • Weight loss
  • Moles/Scars/Lesions
  • Cleaning
  • Energy!

ACV – How to take it

Raw, unfiltered apple cider vinegar is the only way to go! That stuff you see floating around in the bottle is the “mother vinegar” and it holds almost all of its health benefits. Shake well before using.

Start by taking 1 tablespoon of ACV diluted into a 12 ounce glass of lukewarm water. You can slowly increase that dosage to 2-3 tablespoons per day if needed. Consume prior to eating or during times of stomach discomfort.

Yes, it has a distinct smell and tastes sour. If you can’t handle it, I say stop being a suck and drink it for your health.

Cheers!!

References:

Roberts, Jeff. “12 Reasons Why Apple Cider Vinegar Will Revolutionize Your Health.” Collective Evolution. 2 June 2014. Web. 20 May 2015.

Kondo, T. “Acetic acid upregulates the expression of genes for fatty acid oxidation enzymes in liver to suppress body fat accumulation.” Journal of Agriculture and Food Chemistry. 2009. PubMed.gov.

Lost Battle with Mental Illness

My passion lies in promoting health and fitness while helping others lead a long, happy, and healthy life. Beyond promoting good nutrition, physically active lifestyles, and consistent exercise; I am a huge advocate for mental health. As I mentioned in a previous article (Beyond Blue), this factor is often overlooked when considering ones overall health status.

Many people view psychological disorders differently from other diseases such as cancer or heart disease; but the reality is they are just as serious, and just as commonly end in death. Like cancer, there are treatments, but some begin too late and fail to save the diseased individual.

According to the World Health Organization (WHO), someone around the globe commits suicide every 40 seconds. In the year 2000, 815,000 people lost their lives to suicide — more than double the number of people who die as a direct result of armed conflict every year (306,600). For people between the ages of 15 and 44, suicide is the fourth leading cause of death and the sixth leading cause of disability and infirmity worldwide (World Health Organization, 2002).

While catching up on the world’s news this morning, I came across this heart breaking, eye opening story which I felt compelled to share. A young woman by the name of Natalie recently took her life after a long battle with mental illness.

Natalie and her Mom

My daughter, who lost her battle with mental illness, is still the bravest person I know

I was more than taken back by this story, and my heart goes out to Natalie and her family, as well as anyone who has lost a loved one due to mental illness. I truly believe –as the article suggests- that psychotic breaks are not sudden, but are rather a climax of a long buildup. If the body can become ill; so can the mind. Educating yourself on topics related to mental health will help you get a clearer understanding of the diseases, and hopefully detach the social stigmas surrounding them.

  1. World Health Organization (October 2002). World Report on Violence and Health. Geneva.World Health Organization (October 2002). World Report on Violence and Health. Geneva. http://www.who.int.

Disease Screening

As we get older we take on more responsibility. Work, family, and other commitments consume our time and the days come and go with a blink of the eye.

Many people are responsible for taking care of so many others; some often forget to take care of themselves.heart_disease-1335

With that said, it’s important to take care of yourself and take responsibility for your own health because no one else will do it for you. Getting screened for potential diseases or health disorders is one of the many ways to do so.

The following is a list of some common diseases along with when you should get screened in order to reduce the risk of disease, or detect it early enough to treat it most effectively.

Test

What It Looks For When to get tested

How often

Cholesterol -High lipid levels in the blood = increased risk of heart disease -Age 20-79 -Every 4-6 years

-Depends on risk factors and/or current cholesterol

Pap Test (Pap Smears) -Cellular changes in the cervix indicative of cervical cancer -Sexually active woman under the age of 65 -Every 3 years
Mammography -Breast cancer – Women ages 50+ -Every 1-2 years
Colonoscopy -Colon cancer -Age 50+

-Earlier if there is a family history

-Every 5-10 years
Prostate-specific antigen -Prostate cancer -Men ages 50+ -Talk to your doctor about this test
STI’s -HIV, syphilis, chlamydia, and gonorrhea -Sexually active men & woman of any age -Every year

Your family history and the exposure to other risk factors may determine when/how often you should get screened for certain diseases. Some diseases do not have routine screening tests and may require multiple tests in order to detect any indication of disease. Please talk to your doctor to get more information, especially if you see or feel unusual changes in your body externally or internally.

Moreover, you always have to right to a second opinion. As in any profession, people make mistakes and some are better at their jobs than others; doctors included.

You can’t take care of others unless you take care of yourself.

Battling mental health issues alone is never the answer

I am always reading articles online and when I come across one worth sharing, I post it on Shape 180.

This one hit home with me, as I am a huge advocate for mental health. It compliments a recent article of mine titled “Beyond Blue.”

Here is the link:

http://host.madison.com/daily-cardinal/battling-mental-health-illness-alone-is-never-the-answer/article_95d195c2-b7e8-11e4-922d-bf306522c9b6.html

Beyond Blue

depression

In order to be considered healthy, one must be free of disease and ailments; they are physically active, exercise, and practice good nutrition. However one factor that is often overlooked is mental health.

Years ago I remember hearing someone say that depression and mental illness is fake and people just need to deal with they’re sh*t properly and get over it. That person and whoever else holds this opinion are simply ignorant.

If the body can become ill, so can the mind.

All though there are many forms of mental illness, with variable severities of each, I would like to focus on one form of mental illness in particular – depression.

The endocrine system (aka hormonal system) controls EVERYTHING. Hormones are substances produced by the endocrine glands that have a huge effect on bodily processes. The glands in the endocrine system influence growth and development, mood, sexual function, reproduction, and metabolism.

The nervous system also plays a major roll. In particular, the 3 main neurotransmitters of the brain (dopamine, norepinephrine, and serotonin) appear to have a strong relationship with depressive symptoms. Specific symptoms are associated with an increase or decrease in specific neurotransmitters.

Just to clarify, depression isn’t that crappy feeling after the Toronto Maple Leafs loose again, and again, and again. It goes much deeper than that.

“Depression is a mental illness that affects a person’s mood—the way a person feels. Mood impacts the way people think about themselves, relate to others, and interact with the world around them. This is more than a ‘bad day’ or ‘feeling blue.’ Without supports like treatment, depression can last for a long time.

Signs of depression include feeling sad, worthless, hopeless, guilty, or anxious a lot of the time. Some feel irritable or angry. People lose interest in things they used to enjoy and may withdraw from others. Depression can make it hard to focus on tasks and remember information. It can be hard to concentrate, learn new things, or make decisions. Depression can change the way people eat and sleep, and many people experience physical health problems.

Age and sex can also impact how people experience depression. Males often experience anger or irritability rather than sadness, which can make depression harder for others to see. Young people and older adults may experience lasting changes in mood that are mistakenly dismissed as a normal part of growing up or of aging.” – Canadian Mental Health Association

I have personally suffered from depression and have a family history of it – yes it can be genetic. It does not make me any less of a person, nor does it make me weak. It isn’t the easiest topic to discuss due to the social stigmas attached to it, but I believe people are becoming more open to the topic and that society as a whole is moving in a positive direction to help those who suffer from mental illness.

Symptoms of depression could include:

  • Sadness throughout the day, nearly every day
  • Loss of interest in or enjoyment of one’s favourite activities
  • Feelings of worthlessness
  • Excessive or inappropriate feelings of guilt
  • Thoughts of death or suicide
  • Trouble making decisions
  • Trouble concentrating
  • Feelings of irritability
  • Fatigue or lack of energy
  • Aches and pains (such as headaches, stomach pain, joint pains or other pains)
  • Sleeping too much or too little
  • Change in appetite or weight
  • Feelings of restlessness or being slowed down

If you or a loved one are suffering from depression, first educate yourself as much as possible. Getting a thorough understanding will make you realise it’s not your fault and that there is treatment available. Depression has been/is being heavily studied and more talked about then ever. Go to your doctor if symptoms last more than 2 weeks, or if you’ve had a history of depression. Most importantly, be kind to your body and do not use substances to mask the problem(s), this will only prolong the issue and make it worse. Depression can get progressively worse and become extremely serious if left untreated.

Check out http://depressionhurts.ca/en/depression/ for more information.

Moreover, exercise may be the last thing one would want to do while depressed, but it WILL make a world of difference in your recovery. Exercise releases endorphins that trigger positive feelings in the body and diminish the perception of pain. Regular exercise can ward off anxiety and feelings of depression, reduce stress, boost self-esteem, and help you sleep. If a full workout sounds impossible to you, go for daily walks, preferably outside. Little steps each day will get you closer to feeling like yourself again.